For the past 35 years, I have been trying to understand the molecular mechanisms by which ion channels and membrane transport proteins work. In the early stages of my career, I introduced techniques to record single-molecule behavior of various ion channels in “artificial” phospholipid membranes, using a biochemically reduced system.
My research career has spanned fundamental changes in the ways these membrane proteins can be studied, from cellular patch-recording and membrane reconstitution, to recombinant DNA manipulation, to high-level expression, and x-ray crystallography. I have endeavored to stay current with all these developments, bringing them to bear on questions of membrane transport mechanism.
I have also spent much effort over the years in teaching and mentoring students and postdoctoral co-workers, having taught, in formal classes about 500 undergraduates, and having trained approximately 20 Ph.D. students and 30 postdocs. I have found my interactions with my students and trainees to be a significant source of personal satisfaction in my academic mission.